In the early 2000s, Hanoi faced a pressing environmental issue with widespread waste scattered throughout the city and illegal dumping in landfills, lakes, and water streams. Despite national strategies promoting recycling, only the informal sector engaged in recyclables collection. 

With support from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the City of Hanoi embarked on a comprehensive waste management initiative (2006-2009), focusing on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) activities involving various stakeholders. The primary goal was to foster a culture of 3R practices through extensive public awareness campaigns targeting the general population, aiming to shift behaviors and attitudes towards waste.

Waste Management Education materials   
developed by JICA volunteers